The Civilitary Theory​​


Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis

​​​Civlilitary Model  III:  Hamas

Hamas has followed all three stages of Civilitary Theory. 

​It gained territory and governed civilians (Model I), terrorized different groups of civilians within its land and in nearby states (Model II), and then, in respond to airstrikes, acquired terroballistic capabilities and ascivilated them in densely populated residential areas (Model III).

Hamas evolved to be a territorial terrorist group and moved to Model I in 2007, after it took over the territory of the Gaza Strip and gained control over the lives of 1.8 million civilians. 

Hamas then moved quickly to Model II: first, it terrorized its own civilians in Gaza; and second, it conducted terrorism against civilians in nearby states while shooting thousands of rockets into and launching numerous terror attacks against Israel. (However, it should be noted that Hamas activities apparently do not meet the final criterion of Model II, as there are no reports indicating its involvement in terrorist attacks around the world).

Since Hamas took over Gaza, it has had three major clashes with Israel—Operations Cast Lead (2008) Pillar of Defense  (2012) and Protective Edge (2014).  In all of these clashes Hamas had no answer to Israel’s aerial superiority. In the past, Hamas mostly fired short range homemade Kassam rockets and mortars. But Hamas has slowly introduced better and more sophisticated terroballistic capabilities and enhanced its ability to execute more terroballistic attacks deeper into the Israeli territory. 

In order to shield these terroballistic capabilities from aerial attacks, Hamas has also ascivilated its missiles in densely civilian populated areas in Gaza, transformed residential complexes to military installations and even shot from the vicinity of UN facilities.  

Hamas executed numerous terroballistic attacks on densely populated areas in Israel. During operation Protective Edge in 2014, Hamas shot more than 4,500 missiles from Gaza into Israeli civilian areas, covering most areas in Israel.

In August 2014, President Obama acknowledged the tragic outcomes of this strategy by noting that “Hamas acts extraordinarily irresponsibly when it is deliberately siting rocket launchers in population centers, putting populations at risk because of that particular military strategy. . . I’ve also expressed my distress at what’s happened to innocent civilians, including women and children, during the course of this process.” 


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Boko Haram

The Houthis in Yemen


Classifying terrorist groups 

Examples of ​Civilitary Model II 

Examples of ​Civilitary Model III

​​​CivlilItary Model  III

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Examples of ​Civilitary Model I 

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